Umqombothi

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Umqombothi isiXhosa libizwa ngolu hlobo: [um̩k͡ǃomboːtʰi], igama elithi mqombothi livela kulwimi lwesiXhosa, ngokwesilungu singathi y-beer eyenziwe ngombona (ukhozo), umgubo wombona, umgubo wamazimba, igwele namanzi. Xa ixhaphakile emZantsi Afrika, ibano-Vitamin B omninzi kakhulu. Umqombothi unezinga le-alcohol eliphantsi kakhulu (lidla ngokuba ngaphantsi kwe-3%) kwaye yaziwa ngokuba sisitshoqolo ukubamuncu. Ngokwembonakalo, obu tywala bububisirha kwaye bubalubhelu ngombala. Bunento ubujiya, buntubululu (obuvela emboneni).

Umqombothi iphantsi ngexabiso kunotywala besilungu, obubiliswe ngenkoduso buze buhonjiswe ngeentyatyambo zee-hops.

Indlela yokwenza umqombothi  ngokwesintu[tshintsha | edit source]

Umqombothi ubiliswe ngokwesithethe sakwantu, kwaye oku kubanomahlukwana omncinci ngokweengingqi. Indlela zokuwenza nezinto ezixutywayo xa usenziwa zigqithiselwa kwizizukulwana ngezizukulwana. Ngokwesintu, obu tywala buphekwa emlilweni obaswe phaya phandle.   Buyakuthi ke emva koko bupholiswe kusehliswa nje ubushushu buse phaya ngaphandle. 

Izinto ezixutywayo ke xa busenziwa zezi:  umlinganiselo wombona, umbona ograyiweyo (umgubo wombona) kunye nomgubo wenkoduso. Umgubo wombona inika umbala omthubi utsho ubenelagrangqa levumba lotywala. Inkoduso yona inwutsho umqombothi ubemdaka ngebala. 

Lo mdibaniso wotywala uxutyelwa kwimbiza ye-cast-iron, eyaziwa ngokuba ngu-potjie emZantsi Afrika. Kugalelwa umlinganiselo wezitya zamanzi ezine. Lo mxube uyekwa ubusuku bonke. Buyakuqalisa ke ukubila kubonakale kulephuza amagwebu. Kuyakuvakala ivumba elimuncu. 

Intwana yentsipho iyasuswa zibekwe bucala.  Intlama eshiyekileyo iyaphekwa de ubesisidudu.  Le ntlama ke ibizwa ngokuba  sisidudu esityiwayo. Xa kusenziwa umqombothi, siyayekwa isidudu usuku lonke siphole.

Emva kokuba sele sipholile,  siphokozelwa emphandeni. Inkoduso esiliweyo okanye egutyiweyo ebibekelwe bucala  kuvutyelwa ngayo kwakulo mphanda. Esi sidudu ke ngoku izakuzanyiswa ngephini. Emva koko umphanda wotywala (uvalwa ngesiciko sawo, uze emva koko wombathiswe ujikelezwa ngengubo ngaphezu kweso siciko (ukugcina ubushushu).  umphanda uyakubekwa kwindawo eshushu ubusuku bonke, ukuze bukhawuleze bubile. 

Indlela yemveli yokubona okokuba ingaba butsalile na obu tywala, kukuqhwitha ngomatshisi kufutshane nomphanda lowo uphethe utywala. Ukuba umlilo wematshisi uphephetheka msinya, oko kuthetha okokuba utywala bulungile. Ukuba umlilo wematshisi umi ndawonye awuphephetheki, oko kuthetha okokuba abukalungi utywala. Loo nto yenziwa kukuba le ntlama ibilayo ikhupha i-carbon dioxide eninzi, engakuvumeliyo ukuvutha kwematshisi. 

Xa sele bulungile utywala, buyahluzwa ngesihluzo, ukuze kususwe iinkozo ezingenzkuseleka ekuthiwa ziintsipho. Intsalela esemazantsi embiza yesidudu kuthiwa yintshela. Intshela nayo ifakwa kwalapha kwesi sihluzo sotywala, ukuze ize nelinye ivumba. 

Iintsipho ziyakhanywa ze zisasazwe ebaleni ukuze zityiwe ngamantsontsho eenkukhu. Ugwebu lomqombothi kwenziwa ngalo umbulelo kwizinyanya. 

Xa sele buhluziwe obu tywala,  bugalela kwigongqo elikhulu elaziwa ngokuba ligogogo. xa sebugalelwe apho ke ngoku, bulengele ukuba buselwe zizihlobo nosapho.  Xa zifika iindwendwe kweli khaya kusilwe kulo, zize kungcamla kobu tywala nazo zizekuzonwabisa, ngokwesiko ziza nebhotile yebrandi, ukubonisa owabo umbuleleo. 

ukusetyenziswa komqombothi kumasiko akwaNtu. [tshintsha | edit source]

Umqombothi usetyenziswa kwitheko lokwamkela amadodana aziwa ngokuba ngabakwetha kwisiko lesiXhosa, emva kokuba sele ethe oluswa ngokusesikweni. 

Obu tywala budlala indima enkulu xa umntu ezama ukuxhumana nezinyanya azakowabo, bukwadlala indima enkulu kwintlalo yakwaNtu, kangangokuba busoloko busetyenziswa kwimitshato yesiNtu, kwimingcwabo, nakwiimbizos (iindibano zesintu.[1]

Okuqatshelwayo ngokwempilo[tshintsha | edit source]

Uphando lwakutsha nje[2] lifumanise ukuba amazimba nombona zisetyenziswa ekwenzeni umqombothi,  zisoloko zinechaphaza leentlobo ze-fungi oluyi-mold engunozala wemycotoxin eyi-Aspergillus spp., i-Penicillium spp., i-Rhizopus spp. kunye ne-Mucor spp.

Nangona utywala osele benziwe bagqitywa bungenachaphaza la fungi;  i- 33% yamazimba otywala obuthengiswayo ane-  aflatoxins ne-45% yotywala obusilwe ekhaya bune-zearalenone kunye ne/okanye i-ochratoxin A kwimveliso yokugqibela. 

Kwiphondo laseMpuma Koloni emZantsi Afrika izinga lomhlaza womqala [3] liphakame kakhulu. Uphando olwenziwe libhunga lezempilo kweli lomZantsi Afrika lifumanise okokuba ii-mycotoxins kumbona otyalwe emakhaya ziinxulumene nezinga eliphezulu lesifo somhlaza. 

Kumasiko aziwayo[tshintsha | edit source]

Eli gama lotywala siyaliva kwingoma kaYvonne Chaka Chaka. Izicengcelezo zale ngoma zibubiza ngokuba y"i-magic African beer." Le ngoma yakala kumsitho wokuvula  i-Hotela yaseRwanda.

Jonga nalapha[tshintsha | edit source]

  • I-Burukutu, i-Chibuku kunye ne-Munkoyo okanye 'Ibwatu' eZambia.

Kufundwe la maphepha [tshintsha | edit source]